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Basalt rocks are a common geological formation that plays a crucial role in various engineering applications, such as construction, infrastructure development, and geotechnical engineering. Understanding the physical and geotechnical properties of basalt rocks is essential for ensuring the stability and safety of structures built on or within these formations. It is crucial to understand how basalt rocks deform and fail under applied loads for geotechnical assessments. Deformation and failure mechanisms are influenced by factors such as jointing, weathering, and stress conditions. Therefore, a comprehensive analysis is necessary to ensure reliable engineering designs. Proper site investigations and geotechnical assessments are essential to address these challenges effectively and ensure reliable engineering designs.
This paper provides a comprehensive review of the geotechnical properties of basalt rocks, including their origin, mineralogy, physical characteristics, and engineering behavior. The paper also includes case studies of the Sardar Sarovar (Narmada) dam Project and Karjan dam, Gujarat, India, highlighting the successful utilization of basalt rocks in the construction of major dams and underground powerhouse. These case studies provide insights into potential challenges posed by basalt rocks and associated features in the construction of structures and their adequate solutions.